We have isolated several cDNA clones encoding cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNAs which are enriched in postmeiotic (haploid) spermatogenic cells in the mouse. Seventeen of 750 clones from a testis cDNA library hybridized more strongly to 32P-labeled cDNA copied from cytoplasmic poly(A) RNA of round spermatids than pachytene spermatocytes. Northern gel blots demonstrated that these 17 plasmids hybridized to RNA(s) approximately 0.5 kb (1 clone), 0.7 kb (13 clones), 0.8 kb (1 clone), and 0.9 kb (2 clones). Four plasmids hybridizing to RNAs 0.7 and 0.9 kb were further characterized by Northern blots. The levels of hybridization were about 10-fold greater with RNA from round spermatids, elongating spermatids and residual bodies than from pachytene spermatocytes from adult testis. These plasmids did not hybridize with cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNA from sexually immature testis, adult liver, or brain, larger precursors in adult testis nuclear RNA, total RNA from cultured Sertoli cells, poly(A)- RNA from adult testis or the mouse mitochondrial genome. These results demonstrate that certain poly(A)+ RNAs are abundant in haploid cells but barely or not detectable in meiotic cells suggesting the accumulation of these RNAs in round spermatids requires transcription in haploid cells.