A DNA copy of influenza B/Singapore/222/79 viral RNA segment 5, containing the gene coding for the nucleoprotein (NP), has been cloned in Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322, and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The influenza B NP gene contains 1,839 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 560 amino acids with a molecular weight of 61,593. Comparison of the influenza B NP amino acid sequence with that of influenza A NP (A/PR/8/34) reveals 37% direct homology in the aligned regions, indicating a common ancestor. However, influenza B NP has an additional 50 amino acids at its N-terminal end. As is the case with influenza A NP, influenza B NP is a basic protein, with its charged residues relatively evenly distributed rather than clustered. The structural homology suggests functional similarity between the NP of influenza A and B viruses.