Clinical utility of two-dimensional doppler echocardiographic techniques for estimating pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratios in children with left to right shunting atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus

J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984 Jan;3(1):169-78. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(84)80445-3.


Range gated two-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic methods were evaluated for quantifying pulmonary (QP) to systemic (QS) blood flow ratios. Twenty-one patients were studied, 4 with patent ductus arteriosus, 6 with atrial septal defect and 11 with ventricular septal defect. The Doppler pulmonary to systemic flow (QP:QS) estimation method involved calculating volume flow (liters/min) at a variety of intracardiac sites by using imaging information for flow area and Doppler outputs to calculate mean flow velocity as a function of time. Area volume flows were combined to yield QP:QS ratios. The sites sampled were main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta, mitral valve orifice and subpulmonary right ventricular outflow tract. The overall correlation between Doppler QP:QS estimates and those obtained at cardiac catheterization (n = 18) or radionuclide angiography (n = 3) was r = 0.85 (standard error of the estimate = 0.48:1). These preliminary results suggest that clinical application of this Doppler echocardiographic method should allow noninvasive estimation of the magnitude of cardiac shunts.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Circulation*
  • Cardiac Catheterization
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / diagnosis
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / physiopathology*
  • Echocardiography / methods*
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnosis
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / physiopathology*
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / diagnosis
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Pulmonary Circulation*