Although arterial injury is believed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, little is known about lipoprotein accumulation in the injured arterial wall. In experiments reported here, the authors quantitated the accumulation of iodinated lipoprotein and albumin in reendothelialized and deendothelialized rabbit aorta. Results indicate that over the experimental period, insudated lipoprotein but not albumin is retained in the reendothelialized aorta. Neither lipoprotein nor albumin was retained in the adjacent persistently deendothelialized aorta. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sequestration of lipoprotein in reendothelialized artery is one mechanism by which lipid accumulates in these areas.