Genitofemoral neuralgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain and paresthesia in the region of genitofemoral nerve distribution. Genitofemoral nerve entrapment has been described after inguinal herniorrhaphy, appendectomy, and cesarean section. Failure to distinguish it from ilioinguinal nerve entrapment can result in unnecessary inguinal reexploration, or patients severely debilitated from chronic pain. We recommend that patients with persistent pain and paresthesia in the inguinal region following surgery should have a local ilioinguinal nerve block. If this is unsuccessful in affecting relief of symptoms, a paravertebral block of L-1 and L-2 should be considered. Using these two blocks, a rational decision can then be made to operate on either the ilioinguinal nerve or the genitofemoral nerve. We describe three cases of genitofemoral neuralgia treated by extraperitoneal excision of the genitofemoral nerve.