A total of 813 patients from the years 1976 to 1980 who had a bacteremic Haemophilus influenzae infection were analyzed. Special attention was paid to disease entities (16.5% of the total) other than meningitis (60.5%) or epiglottitis (23.0%). Ninety-six cases in the nonmeningitis, nonepiglottitis (NMNE) group showed the following distribution: 25 patients with septicemia without specific focus, 21 arthritis, 19 cellulitis, 17 pneumonia, six otitis, four local abscess, two laryngotracheobronchitis, and two with an eye infection. Eighty-eight percent of the cases were children who were less than 5 years old; in the septicemia and pneumonia groups, however, 33 percent were 15 years of age and older, and 10 percent were over 60 years of age. All diseases in the NMNE group were acute; 51 percent of the patients sought medical advice within two days. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated constantly at presentation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was increased (greater than 20 mm/hr) in 87 percent, high fever greater than 38.5 degrees C (101.3 degrees F) was measured in 85 percent, and leukocytosis (greater than 15 X 10(9)/l) was present in 71 percent. Various antimicrobial agents were given for an average of 17 days. The mean period of hospitalization was 13 days. Case fatality rate was 4 percent; all deaths occurred among patients with an underlying disease. No permanent damage was observed.