One hundred environmental water samples, which were collected in the Quebec city area and cultured on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium and three selective media, were inoculated to guinea pigs and were screened by direct immunofluorescent staining (DFA) for the presence of Legionellaceae. Six isolates were made (four Legionella pneumophila and two Tatlockia (Legionella) micdadei: three by animal inoculation and three by culture). No samples were simultaneously positive by both methods. After screening by DFA, 43 of the 100 samples were positive for Legionellaceae and 27 of those contained more than one serogroup and (or) species of Legionellaceae. Legionella pneumophila (serogroups 1 to 6) was the most frequent species seen by DFA. These results clearly show that Legionellaceae are frequent members of the freshwater microbial flora of the Quebec city area.