The primary structures of the alpha- and beta-chains from goldfish hemoglobin are given. The globin chains were separated by gel filtration after air-oxidation of globin. After chemical and enzymatical cleavage of the chains, the peptides were isolated by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography on Dowex. The fish-chains have one residue more than the human chains. The alpha-chain is acetylated at the amino-terminal residue and has no cysteine. Compared with the human chains there are 66 amino-acid differences in the alpha- and 72 in the beta-chains. The implication of these differences for the physiology of the hemoglobin molecule of goldfish is discussed.