The objective of this investigation is to analyze the two following problems of the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation: what is the extramitochondrial parameter that controls ATP production according to the cytoplasmic demands and how the control is distributed between various mitochondrial enzymes. On the basis of the data of Groen et al. (1982) it is shown that as the respiration rates ranged over 30-50% of the maximum (i.e. within the physiological region) the contribution of the adenine nucleotide translocator to the control of the ATP flux is no less than 90%, referring to the total contribution of all mitochondrial enzymes as 100%. Founding on the key role of the adenine nucleotide translocator it has been concluded that besides the extramitochondrial [ATP]/[ADP] ratio the absolute ADP concentration is another extramitochondrial signal controlling significantly the rate of oxidative phosphorylation.