The course and composition of the cingulum bundle was examined by using the autoradiographic tracer technique in the rhesus monkey. The cingulum bundle is observed to consist of three major fiber components originating from thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and cortical association areas. Following isotope injections in the anterior and lateral dorsal thalamic nuclei, labelled fibers form an arch in the white matter behind the cingulate sulcus and occupy the ventral sector of the cingulum bundle. The fibers from the anterior thalamic nucleus coursing in the cingulum bundle extended rostrally to the frontal cortex and caudally to area 23 and the retrosplenial cortex. In contrast, the fibers from lateral dorsal nucleus reached the retrosplenial cortex as well as the parahippocampal gyrus and presubiculum. Efferent fibers from the cingulate gyrus occupy a dorsolateral sector of the cingulum bundle. Those fibers from area 24 of the cingulate gyrus are directed to the premotor and prefrontal regions as well as area 23 and retrosplenial cortex. The fibers from area 23 extend rostrally to the prefrontal cortex and caudoventrally to the presubiculum and parahippocampal gyrus. Finally, an association component originates mainly from prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal region. These fibers occupy a more dorsal and lateral periphery in the cingulate white matter. Cingulum bundle fibers from the prefrontal cortex extend up to the retrosplenial cortex while those from the posterior parietal cortex extend caudally to the parahippocampal gyrus and presubiculum, and rostrally up to the prefrontal cortex.