The contributions of computed tomographic (CT) images to the planning of medical and surgical treatment of osteomyelitis were assessed in seven patients. The scans helped medical therapy in two cases by guiding nonsurgical percutaneous biopsy of infected tissue, permitting prompt institution of proper antibiotics. The scans indicated the need for surgery and provided vital information on disease extent that helped plan the appropriate operation in five patients. Sequestra, medullary involvement, and the extent of sinus tracts that could not be seen on conventional imaging tests were detectable on CT. It is concluded that CT plays an important role in proper choices of both medical and surgical treatment in patients with osteomyelitis.