Puffing behavior (number of puffs, puff duration, puff volume, peak pressure, peak flow, peak latency, and puff interval) and pre- to postsmoking delta tidal CO difference were measured in female subjects in order to assess separate and combined effects of ethanol and caffeine. The subjects smoked two cigarettes of their habitual brand in a preliminary familiarizing session and in each of the subsequent four test sessions. The treatments administered after smoking the first cigarette in the test sessions were: alcohol placebo and caffeine placebo; alcohol placebo and caffeine; alcohol and caffeine placebo; alcohol and caffeine. Test-retest reliability across the first cigarette of each session (which was not smoked under the influence of the treatments) was remarkably high for all the puffing parameters. Ethanol in the dose of 0.7 g/kg intensified cigarette smoking of the second cigarette by increasing delta tidal CO, average puff volume, and total puff volume per cigarette, whereas 0.5 g/kg ethanol and 5 mg/kg caffeine given alone or combined with ethanol failed to influence puffing behavior consistently.