Ten women with normal pregnancies who underwent an elective cesarean section received orally 200 mg of aminophylline every 6 hours for 24 - 36 hours prior to surgery. The levels of aminophylline and caffeine were measured in maternal and cord sera and in amniotic fluids. The mean level of aminophylline (+/- SD) in maternal serum was 10.4 +/- 1.74 micrograms/ml, and in cord serum 11.2 +/- 1.25 micrograms/ml. The mean aminophylline level in amniotic fluids was 8.2 +/- 1.42 micrograms/ml. The serum aminophylline levels were within the therapeutic level range. Caffeine levels in those specimens ranged between traces to 6 micrograms/ml which correspond to the normal dietary range.