The histological and ultrastructural features of secondary neurulation in C57BL/6 mouse embryos were examined as a first step in the analysis of how this process occurs in mammalian embryos. Secondary neurulation involves two major events in mouse embryos: (1) formation of the medullary rosette (9.5- to 10-day embryos) or plate (11- to 12-day embryos), and (2) cavitation. These two events occur simultaneously. The medullary rosette consists of elongated tail bud cells, radially arranged around a central lumen formed by cavitation. The secondary portion of the neural tube forms in 9.5- to 10-day embryos by progressive enlargement of the central lumen and addition (by cell recruitment or mitosis) of tail bud cells to the rosette. The medullary plate likewise consists of elongated tail bud cells, but these cells do not surround a central cavity. Instead, cells of the medullary plate extend ventrad from the basal aspect of the dorsal surface ectoderm to a slit-like cavity formed by cavitation. Formation of the secondary neural tube occurs in 11- to 12-day embryos, principally by the recruitment of more lateral and ventral tail bud cells into the medullary plate. Free cells and cellular debris are frequently encountered in the forming lumen of the secondary neural tube, but cells exhibiting signs of necrosis were absent in cavitating regions. Numerous small intercellular junctions form at the inner ( juxtaluminal ) ends of tail bud cells as the medullary rosette or plate is forming and cavitation is occurring. These observations suggest that cavitation per se (i.e., formation of a lumen) during secondary neurulation is a relatively passive phenomenon, which results principally from neighboring cells becoming polarized apicobasally and incorporated into a primitive neuroepithelium. The latter constitutes the walls of the forming secondary neural tube.