Educational strategies in curriculum development: the SPICES model

Med Educ. 1984 Jul;18(4):284-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.1984.tb01024.x.


Six education strategies have been identified relating to the curriculum in a medical school. Each issue can be represented as a spectrum or continuum: student-centred/teacher-centred, problem-based/information-gathering, integrated/discipline-based, community-based/hospital-based, elective/uniform and systematic/apprenticeship-based. The factors supporting a more towards each end of the continuum are presented for each strategy. Newer schools tend to be more to the left on the continuum, established schools more to the right. Each school, however, has to decide where it stands on each issue and to establish its own profile. This SPICES model of curriculum strategy analysis can be used in curriculum planning or review, in tackling problems relating to the curriculum and in providing guidance relating to teaching methods and assessment.

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Clerkship
  • Community Medicine / education
  • Curriculum*
  • Education, Medical, Undergraduate*
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Problem Solving
  • Teaching / methods