Cortisol, urea, glucose, electrolytes, and other compounds were measured in five consecutive 24 h urine collections during a 72 h sleep deprivation study in six young men. Urine was collected during a 24 h predeprivation day, 3 days of sleep deprivation, and a recovery day. Whereas urinary cortisol decreased only slightly, marked changes in other urinary constituents were observed. During sleep deprivation, urinary urea rose markedly, glucose decreased, and urinary electrolytes decreased. These data indicate that sleep deprivation under ad lib food and water conditions can cause disturbances in normal metabolism.