Catalytic and structural properties of the dihydrolipoyl transacylase component of bovine branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase

J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 25;259(14):9277-84.


Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase is a multienzyme complex consisting of three catalytic components, i.e. branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), dihydrolipoyl transacylase (E2), and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). In this report the E2 component of highly purified branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase from bovine kidney and liver was characterized with an independent radiochemical assay for this component. The assay uses the model reaction: R-14CO-S-CoA + Lip-(SH)2 in equilibrium R-14CO-S-Lip-SH + CoA-SH, which is similar to that catalyzed by the transacetylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In this reaction, exogenous dihydrolipoamide substitutes for the protein (E2)-bound dihydrolipoyl moiety, and [1-14C]acyl-CoA synthesized enzymatically is the acyl-CoA substrate. The thioester structure of the reaction product, S-acyldihydrolipoamide, was identified by mass spectrometry, its characteristic absorption at 232-245 nm and by formation of hydroxamate with hydroxylamine. Rates of the E2-catalyzed transacylation reaction with various [1-14C]acyl-CoAs are in the order of [1-14C]isobutyryl-CoA greater than [1-14C] isovaleryl-CoA greater than [1-14C]acetyl-CoA. The activity with acetyl-CoA is 15% of that with isobutyryl-CoA. The E2 activity is strongly inhibited by arsenite. Modification of the covalently bound lipoyl moiety through reductive acylation in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide is without effect on the transacylation reaction. These data, along with results of initial velocity and product inhibition suggest that the model reaction proceeds via a random Bi Bi mechanism. Limited proteolysis of purified bovine liver branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase with trypsin results in complete loss of the overall activity catalyzed by the complex. Nonetheless the activity of the E2 component is not affected. The tryptic digestion cleaves E2 subunits (Mr = 52,600) into a major fragment of Mr = 25,700. By contrast, E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits of the complex are relatively resistant to proteolysis with trypsin. The results indicate that structural properties of the E2 component of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase are similar but not identical to those of the transacetylase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)
  • Acyltransferases / isolation & purification
  • Acyltransferases / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Cattle
  • Ketone Oxidoreductases / isolation & purification
  • Ketone Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Kidney / enzymology*
  • Kinetics
  • Liver / enzymology*
  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Molecular Weight
  • Multienzyme Complexes / isolation & purification
  • Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism*
  • Peptide Fragments / analysis
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Trypsin


  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Macromolecular Substances
  • Multienzyme Complexes
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Ketone Oxidoreductases
  • 3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)
  • Acyltransferases
  • dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase
  • Trypsin