Development of the apical ectodermal ridge in the chick wing bud

J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1984 Apr;80:21-41.


Histological examination of the stage-18 to stage-23 chick wing bud apex revealed the following. Initially, the wing bud was covered by a cuboidal to columnar epithelium with an overlying periderm. Thickening of the apical ectoderm was not obvious until late stage 18 (36 pairs of somites), after the appearance of the wing bud. At late stage 18, cells of the inner layer of ectoderm had elongated slightly along an axis perpendicular to the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. Well-defined apical ectodermal ridge morphology, i.e., pseudostratified columnar epithelium with an overlying periderm, was not apparent until stage 20. Subsequently the ridge lengthened along the anteroposterior perimeter of the wing bud. We demonstrated histologically that the apical ectodermal ridge of the wing bud was asymmetric with respect to the anteroposterior axis, in that there was more ridge associated with posterior mesoderm. Other observations include the spatial and temporal location of a groove in the base of the thickest part of the ridge. The groove can be correlated with the specification of distal wing elements. The groove was first seen at stage 20 and became more prominent through stage 23. An anteroposterior progression of ectodermal cell death was also observed. This began at late stage 18 and continued through each of the stages examined.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chick Embryo / physiology*
  • Ectoderm / anatomy & histology*
  • Epithelium / embryology
  • Morphogenesis
  • Wings, Animal / anatomy & histology
  • Wings, Animal / embryology*