Immunoglobulin class-specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used for determination of antibody responses in sera collected from 26 children with acute primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. All 26 patients had IgG antibody responses with a significant titer increase in 24 (92%); an IgM antibody response was detected in 19 of the 26 (73%). From patients aged 6 months or less only 5 of 8 produced detectable IgM antibodies, whereas all patients aged 1-2 years did so. IgM antibodies appeared within 1 week after onset of illness and persisted from 20 days to 2-3 months. An IgA antibody response was observed in 20 of 26 (77%) patients with a significant titer increase detected in 17 of 26 (65%) patients. In some patients the persistence of IgA antibodies followed that of the IgM antibodies, but in others the IgA antibody titers remained stable up to the end of the follow-up. The most sensitive assay system for serological diagnosis of acute RSV infection in children was the determination of titer increases by IgG antibody.