In a prospective clinical and microbiological study covering 67 prepubertal children the vaginal flora of 31 asymptomatic children was compared to 36 children suffering from abnormal vaginal discharge and/or vulvovaginitis. Vaginoscopy was employed to obtain bacteriological specimens without contamination. Swabs were inoculated into prereduced transportmedia (PORT A CUL, BBL) and cultured aerobically and anaerobically. The most prevalent aerobic organisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis. Enterococci and Escherichia coli; the predominant anaerobic bacteria were Peptococcus and Peptostreptococcus, Veillonella parvula, Eubacteria, Propionibacterium and Bacteroides species. A similar microbiological pattern was found in both groups, although anaerobes, like Peptococci and Peptostreptococci and Bacteroides species, as well as yeasts, like Candida albicans were significantly more frequent in the group with signs and symptoms. Lactobacilli were less common in this group.