The immunohistochemical localization of calcium-binding protein (CaBP) in the cerebellum, hippocampal formation and olfactory bulb of the rat was examined using rabbit anti-human or sheep anti-chick antisera purified by affinity chromatography. CaBP-like immunoreactivity was observed within the somata and dendrites of: (1) cerebellar Purkinje cells; (2) dentate granule cells, CA1 pyramidal cells and scattered interneurons in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus; (3) periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulb. Staining was conspicuously absent in certain major cell types in each of these structures including cerebellar granule cells, hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA3 region and both mitral and granule cells in the olfactory bulb. Immunoreactive fibers in the cerebellum presumably corresponding to climbing fiber inputs from the inferior olive and efferent projections to the deep cerebellar nuclei, were also observed. In the hippocampus intense staining was present in the mossy fiber projection to the CA3 region and in the terminal regions of the perforant path projection from entorhinal cortex.