This study demonstrates the application of a more comprehensive methodology for evaluating quality of life of hemodialysis and transplant patients and provides some heuristic data. Physiologic and psychologic measures were combined to assess the quality of life of 59 patients treated for endstage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with successful cadaveric transplants gave evidence of greater physical and occupational rehabilitation than patients on chronic hemodialysis. On measures of subjective quality of life, however, successful transplant and hemodialysis patients were similar in reporting normal affect whereas failed transplant patients showed a diminished quality of life. These results suggest that cadaveric transplantation may have limited value as an intervention to improve quality of life for patients with ESRD. Moreover, the results demonstrate the usefulness of questionnaire techniques adapted from psychological research for evaluating the quality of life of patients following medical intervention.