Saccharomyces boulardii became established in the digestive tract of monoxenic mice; the number of viable cells ranged around 10(7.5) per gram faeces. This yeast was drastically eliminated from the digestive tract of gnotoxenic mice harbouring a complex flora of human origin. In monoxenic mice harbouring S. boulardii, Candida albicans became established at a level equivalent to that observed in monoxenic mice harbouring C. albicans alone. If gnotoxenic mice received a concentrated suspension of viable S. boulardii cells so as to steadily maintain a population level close to 10(9) viable cells, C. albicans then became established at a level 10 to 50 times lower than that reached by the yeast strain alone. The antagonistic effect exerted in vivo by S. boulardii was preventive and curative. It was active against C. albicans, C. krusei and C. pseudotropicalis strains, but ineffective against C. tropicalis. This antagonistic effect disappeared when S. boulardii cells were killed by heating.