We examined microbial isolates from the endocervical and peritoneal cavity of 30 women hospitalized with acute PID. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two antibiotic regimens: amoxicillin, 6 gm by mouth every 24 hours, or aqueous penicillin G, 30 million units and gentamicin, 180 to 240 mg intravenously every 24 hours. We measured response by quantifying physical examination findings. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from the cervix of 24 patients (80%) and from the peritoneal cavity of 10 (33%). Other peritoneal isolates included Enterobacteriaceae in five patients, Ureaplasma urealyticum in five, Mycoplasma hominis in six, and Chlamydia trachomatis in three. Bacteroides melaninogenicus, the most frequent anaerobe, was isolated in 11 cases. Bacteroides fragillis was not isolated from any specimen. The cure rates were the same for both regimens: three patients failed on each. Four women required total abdominal hysterectomy and unilateral or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.