According to most behavioural, electrophysiological, and clinical studies, the cingulate gyrus is widely thought to be involved in regulation of emotional life, reactivity to painful stimuli, memory processing, and attention to sensory stimuli. Anatomically the cingulate cortex is composed of two distinct areas numbered 24 and 23 in Brodmann's classification. We have investigated the connections of the cingulate gyrus in monkeys, using horseradish peroxydase and radioautographic techniques, in order to verify the hypothesis of an anatomical complementarity of these cytoarchitectonic subdivisions. The posterior cingulate gyrus (area 23) is specifically connected with the associative temporal cortex, the medial temporal and orbitofrontal cortices, and with the medial pulvinar. The anterior cingulate gyrus (area 24) is related to the intralaminar, mediodorsal, and ventral anterior thalamic nuclei, the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens septi. The two cingulate areas were found to be interconnected and to have, in common, connections with the 'limbic' thalamic nuclei (AM, AV, LD), the caudate nucleus, the claustrum, the lateral frontal and the posterior parietal (area 7) cortices.