The Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire in psychopharmacological investigations - a review

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1980;71(2):173-9. doi: 10.1007/BF00434408.


The Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire comprises ten self-rating 100-mm-line analogue questions concerned with aspects of sleep and early morning behaviour. The questionnaire has been used to monitor subjectively perceived changes in sleep during psychopharmacological investigations involving a variety of psychoactive agents, including sedative-hypnotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, CNS stimulants, and antihistamines. Dose-related improvements in the self-reported ratings of getting to sleep and perceived quality of sleep were generally associated with reductions in the self-reported levels of alertness and behavioural integrity the morning following the nocturnal administration of sedative hypnotic and anti-anxiety agents. Psychostimulants on the other hand, impaired subjective ratings of sleep and produced increases in early morning assessments of alertness. Certain antidepressant and antihistaminic agents produced effects similar to the sedative-hypnotics, while others did not affect self-reported aspects of sleep and early morning behaviour.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology
  • Behavior / drug effects
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychopharmacology / methods*
  • Sleep / drug effects*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives