The follow-up urine culture for urinary tract infection (UTI) is widely recommended, but it is done relatively infrequently in everyday practice. We thought an investigation of its effectiveness was warranted. The study population consisted of 141 women with a culture-proven symptomatic lower UTI. Of these, 56.7% (80) had a follow-up culture and 43.3% (61) did not. The two groups were found to be comparable in important parameters of risk for urinary tract infection and its complications. The relative risk of a subsequent symptomatic UTI was 0.5 for women who did not obtain a follow-up urine culture (95% confidence interval = 0.2 to 1.5). The follow-up urine culture in asymptomatic, healthy women may be unjustified.