Monoclonal mouse xenoantibodies to the SD and part of the Ia antigen complex of the rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were raised, and used to localize MHC antigens on frozen sections of kidney, ureter, and bladder of the DA rat strain. The Ia antigens recognized by our monoclonal antibody were located almost entirely within the cells of some, probably the proximal, convoluted tubules of the kidney. The only other Ia-bearing structures were intensely Ia-positive dendritic cells found predominantly in the renal cortex and in the mucosal connective tissues of the ureter and bladder. The SD antigens were widely distributed in the kidney with a major portion again located within the tubular cells, although in the case of SD antigens all tubular cells, including those of the medulla, were positive. By far the brightest tubules were clusters in the outer medulla, probably representing the thick loops of Henle. The endothelium of arterioles, venules and glomerular and interstitial capillaries all stained very brightly for SD antigens. The glomerular mesangium and the interstitial connective tissues of the kidney, ureter, and bladder all gave diffuse positive staining for SD antigens. Transplantation studies established that the tubular Ia and SD antigens of the kidney are produced by the cells and are not in the process of excretion or reabsorption.