Monoclonal antibodies to human monomorphic class I and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determinants have been used with immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques, to localize these antigens in normal human kidneys. HLA-DR antigen was located in the glomeruli (probably on endothelium as well as the mesangium) and within the cells of cortical and medullary tubules. Dendritic cells in the renal interstitium stained brightly for the DR antigen and could be distinguished from the staining of capillary endothelium. The vascular endothelium of large vessels stained less densely for the HLA-DR antigen than for HLA-ABC antigens. The glomeruli stained intensely for the HLA-ABC antigens and diffuse staining of HLA-ABC antigens was also noted within renal tubular cells.