Pyruvate carboxylase from Pseudomonas citronellolis is composed of non-identical subunits which include a larger biotin-containing polypeptide (alpha) of Mr = 65,000, and a smaller biotin-free polypeptide (beta) of Mr = 54,000. We have investigated these two polypeptides by analyzing their amino acid composition, cyanogen bromide peptide maps, and immunochemistry. The results showed that the subunits of the enzyme have quite different properties. Antibodies prepared against the polypeptides were used as probes of the catalytic functions of the subunits. Immunotitration studies indicated that only anti-alpha inhibited enzyme activity. The antibiotin fraction of this antibody population was removed by passage through biotin-Sepharose (anti-alpha'). Titration curves using anti-alpha' showed identical inhibition when total pyruvate carboxylase activity, ATP/Pi exchange activity, and pyruvate/oxalacetate exchange activity were measured, suggesting that both active sites are located on the alpha polypeptide. The arrangement of the subunits in the quaternary structure was investigated by means of the surface probe carbonic anhydrase linked to toluene isocyanate, and by partial digestion experiments with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pronase. The results indicated that the alpha polypeptides are on the outside of the molecule and the beta polypeptides are the internal subunits.