Staging the metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster

J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1981 Dec;66:57-80.


A sequence of 51 visible changes is described during the course of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster, and a series of 24 convenient stages is defined for use in the experimental analysis and exploitation of this part of the insect life cycle. The duration of each stage is estimated and times are suggested for batch collections of symphasic animals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drosophila melanogaster / growth & development*
  • Female
  • Larva / growth & development
  • Male
  • Metamorphosis, Biological*
  • Methods
  • Morphogenesis
  • Pupa / growth & development
  • Time Factors