The selectivity of various inducers of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase was investigated in rat liver microsomes and compared with their effect on monooxygenase reactions. (1) Similar to 3-methyl-cholanthrene beta-naphthoflavone selectively stimulated the glucuronidation of 1-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone (GT1 substrates). (2) In contrast, DDT preferentially enhanced the glucuronidation of morphine, 4-hydroxybiphenyl (GT2 substrates) and bilirubin, similar to phenobarbital. (3) Colfibric acid and bezafibrate selectively enhanced bilirubin glucuronidation without affecting GT1 and GT2 reactions. (4) Similar to ethoxyquin and Aroclor 1254, trans-stilbene oxide enhanced both GT1 and GT2 activities but not bilirubin glucuronidation. (5) In contrast to 3-methylcholanthrene-type inducers which induce both cytochrome P-450MC and GT1, probably through a common receptor protein, ethoxyquin and trans-stilbene oxide markedly induced GT1 reactions without affecting benzo[a]pyrene monooxygenase.