Facial duplication: case, review, and embryogenesis

Teratology. 1982 Apr;25(2):153-9. doi: 10.1002/tera.1420250205.


The craniofacial anatomy of an infant with facial duplication is described. There were four eyes, two noses, two maxillae, and one mandible. Anterior to the single pituitary the brain was duplicated and there was bilateral arhinencephaly. Portions of the brain were extruded into a large frontal encephalocele. Cases of symmetrical facial duplication reported in the literature range from two complete faces on a single head (diprosopus) to simple nasal duplication. The variety of patterns of duplication suggests that the doubling of facial components arises in several different ways: Forking of the notochord, duplication of the prosencephalon, duplication of the olfactory placodes, and duplication of maxillary and/or mandibular growth centers around the margins of the stomatodeal plate. Among reported cases, the female:male ratio is 2:1.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Eye Abnormalities
  • Face / abnormalities*
  • Face / embryology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mandible / abnormalities
  • Maxilla / abnormalities
  • Nose / abnormalities