The substrate specificities of aldehyde and pyridoxal oxidases in Drosophila melanogaster have been determined with a variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. This analysis has led to the discovery that 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde is a specific substrate for pyridoxal oxidase, as based on the histochemical distribution of oxidase activity, the absence of enzymatic activity in the lpo strains, and the dosage dependence on the number of 1po+ genes present. The tissue-specific localization of aldehyde oxidase (AO) and pyridoxal oxidase (PO) in the larval and adult structures showed that AO was present in all the major internal organs of the larvae and adults, including brain, imaginal discs, Malpighian tubules, digestive system, and reproductive structures. Pyridoxal oxidase is present in many of the same structures which possess AO, but is missing from the cardia, crop, imaginal discs, ovarian follicle cells, paragonia, pericardial cells, and wreath cells. The only structure which possesses PO but lacks AO is the larval salivary gland. These histochemical differences in AO and PO distribution were also confirmed by enzymatic analysis of the activities present in homogenates of ovaries, paragonia, and salivary glands. The general pattern of enzyme expression appears to be established during embryogenesis and maintained throughout the life of the individual.