A 15-year study of osseointegrated implants in the treatment of the edentulous jaw

Int J Oral Surg. 1981 Dec;10(6):387-416. doi: 10.1016/s0300-9785(81)80077-4.


Osseointegration implies a firm, direct and lasting connection between vital bone and screw-shaped titanium implants of defined finish and geometry-fixtures. Thus, there is no interposed tissue between fixture and bone. Osseointegration can only be achieved and maintained by a gentle surgical installation technique, a long healing time and a proper stress distribution when in function. During a 15-year period (1965-1980), 2768 fixtures were installed in 410 edentulous jaws of 371 consecutive patients. All patients were provided with facultatively removable bridges and were examined at continuous yearly controls. The surgical and prosthetic technique was developed and evaluated over a pilot period of 5 years. The results of standardized procedures applied on a consecutive clinical material with an observation time of 5-9 years were thought to properly reflect the potential of the method. In this group, 130 jaws were provided with 895 fixtures, and of these 81% of the maxillary and 91% of the mandibular fixtures remained stable, supporting bridges. In 89% of the maxillary and 100% of the mandibular cases, the bridges were continuously stable. During healing and the first year after connection of the bridge, the mean value for marginal bone loss was 1.5 mm. Thereafter only 0.1 mm was lost annually. The clinical results achieved with bridges on osseointegrated fixtures fulfill and exceed the demands set by the 1978 Harvard Conference on successful dental implantation procedures.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bone Screws
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous / adverse effects
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous / methods*
  • Denture Design
  • Denture, Partial
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Jaw, Edentulous / diagnostic imaging
  • Jaw, Edentulous / rehabilitation
  • Jaw, Edentulous / surgery*
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Hygiene
  • Radiography
  • Titanium
  • Wound Healing


  • Titanium