Parameters of ventilatory and gas exchange dynamics during exercise

J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1982 Jun;52(6):1506-13. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1982.52.6.1506.


To determine the precise nonsteady-state characteristics of ventilation (VE), O2 uptake (VO2), and CO2 output (VCO2) during moderate-intensity exercise, six subjects each underwent eight repetitions of 100-W constant-load cycling. The tests were preceded either by rest or unloaded cycling ("0" W). An early component of VE, VO2, and VCO2 responses, which was obscured on any single test by the breath-to-breath fluctuations, became apparent when the several repetitions were averaged. These early responses were abrupt when the work was instituted from rest but were much slower and smaller from the 0-W base line and corresponded to the phase of cardiodynamic gas exchange. Some 20 s after the onset of the work a further monoexponential increase to steady state occurred in all three variables, the time constants of which did not differ between the two types of test. Consequently, the exponential behavior of VE, VO2, and VCO2 in response to moderate exercise is best described by a model that incorporates only the second phase of the response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arteries
  • Carbon Dioxide / blood
  • Female
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen / blood
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Partial Pressure
  • Physical Exertion*
  • Respiration*


  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Oxygen