Massive hemoptysis occurs in 5% to 7% of patients with cystic fibrosis. Approximately 11% of these patients will die within 48 hours of manifestation because of uncontrolled hemoptysis and asphyxiation. If conservative medical treatment fails to control hemoptysis, fiberoptic or rigid bronchoscopy is the least risky and most accurate method of localizing the source of hemoptysis. Acute control of hemoptysis can be obtained in up to 100% of patients with endobronchial Fogarty balloon tamponade and in up to 88% of patients with bronchial artery embolization. Emergency thoracotomy can be performed if the above fail, but only in patients with mild cystic fibrosis and adequate pulmonary reserve.