Many painful conditions affect the shoulder. They can be divided into those extrinsic or intrinsic to the shoulder. The extrinsic conditions include disorders of the cervical spine and thoracic outlet, as well as postural conditions. Intrinsic lesions include acute and chronic calcific tendinitis, bicipital tenosynovitis, arthritis, and adhesive capsulitis. Each disorder has a characteristic clinical pathologic set of diagnostic features, arthrographic picture, and treatment requirements.