The clinical and echocardiographic features of 104 patients (53 women and 51 men) with mitral anular calcification (MAC) were compared with those of 121 age- and sex-matched control subjects (62 women and 59 men) without MAC. The incidence of coronary artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, systemic hypertension, and diabetes mellitus was similar in both groups. Patients with MAC had a greater incidence of cardiomegaly (p less than 0.001), cardiac conduction defects (p less than 0.001), and aortic outflow tract murmurs (p less than 0.005) than did control patients. Patients with MAC and without aortic root calcification had a higher incidence (p less than 0.001) of conduction defects than did patients with aortic root calcification without MAC. Control patients with and without aortic root calcification had a similar incidence of conduction defects. A higher incidence of atrioventricular block (p less than 0.025) and bundle branch block or left anterior hemiblock or intraventricular conduction defect (p less than 0.05) was present in anterior MAC than in posterior MAC. In conclusion, patients with MAC have a higher incidence of cardiomegaly, cardiac conduction defects, and aortic outflow tract murmurs than a control group.