A previously reported negative association between a high index of dietary vitamin A and lung cancer incidence was confirmed in an extended follow-up, covering 11 1/2 years, of 13,785 men and 2,928 women, Responses to a postal questionnaire provided the dietary information. Relationships between the major dietary items and lung cancer were explored for various diagnostic subsets of the 168 lung cancer cases diagnosed among the study subjects. Analyses were stratified for sex, age, residence characteristics, cigarette smoking and, at times, socioeconomic group. Although the data do not permit a firm interpretation in terms of risk enhancement by a marginal retinoid deficiency, we found that the apparent protection afforded by higher intakes of vitamin A or its provitamins was particularly strong for lung cancer appearing as squamous-cell carcinoma and among those with higher alcohol intakes. The individual food items which showed the strongest negative association with lung cancer were carrots and milk. These two items made a major contribution to the vitamin A index and its variation among the respondents.