Most preterm infants develop transient intracranial hypotension, which reaches its lowest level on the 2nd day of life. This corresponds to the time when most neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) occurs. In order to test the hypothesis that intracranial hypotension may have an etiological role in the development of IVH in premature infants, the authors induced intracranial hypotension in the preterm rabbit by the intraperitoneal injection of glycerol. The rabbit model is well suited for this study because this animal is at risk of developing spontaneous germinal matrix and ventricular hemorrhage. Compared to control littermates, the glycerol-treated animals exhibited a greater than 3.5-fold incidence of germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage.