Boxers--computed tomography, EEG, and neurological evaluation

JAMA. 1983 Jan 14;249(2):211-3. doi: 10.1001/jama.249.2.211.


During the last three years, 40 ex-boxers were examined to determine the effects of boxing in regard to their neurological status and the computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the brain. Thirty-eight of these patients had a CT scan of the brain, and 24 had a complete neurological examination including an EEG. The results demonstrate a significant relationship between the number of bouts fought and CT changes indicating cerebral atrophy. Positive neurological findings were not significantly correlated with the number of bouts. Electroencephalographic abnormalities were significantly correlated with the number of bouts fought. Computed tomography and EEG of the brain should be considered as part of a regular neurological examination for active boxers and, if possible, before and after each match, to detect not only the effects of acute life-threatening brain trauma such as subdural hematomas and brain hemorrhages, but the more subtle and debilitating long-term changes of cerebral atrophy.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Athletic Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Atrophy
  • Boxing*
  • Brain / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurologic Examination
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed