Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft fistulas are widely used as secondary vascular access for patients receiving long-term hemodialysis treatment. Sixty-seven grafts were implanted in 48 patients and followed for 12 to 51 months. Cumulative patency for all grafts at 12 months was 67% +/- 6%, at 24 months 50% +/- 7%, and at 48 months 43% +/- 9%. Graft survival rates were different when considering graft configuration and location. Forearm straight graft survival at 12 months was 35% +/- 13%, upper arm curved grafts 60% +/- 19%, and forearm looped grafts 78% +/- 7%. Complications that decreased graft survival were related to thrombosis (21%), infection (25%), and intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis (34%). After reviewing our experience, we believe that the challenge of secondary vascular access has not been solved by PTFE grafts. This should stimulate the search for better grafts and techniques.