Case histories of 123 patients with massive hemoptysis were reviewed. The causes of hemorrhage were active pulmonary tuberculosis (47), bronchiectasis (37), chronic necrotizing pneumonia (11), lung abscess (six), lung cancer (six), bronchovascular fistula (five), primary pulmonary fungal infection (four), and miscellaneous (seven). Conservative management was used in 66 patients, with 21 deaths (31.8%). Surgical management was used in 34 patients, with six deaths (17.6%). Endobronchial iced saline lavage was used in 23 patients, with one death. All patients treated by lavage stopped bleeding, and further therapy, either surgical (five) or medical (18), was given as appropriate. The early control of tracheobronchial hemorrhage by endoscopic means is an effective though transitory holding procedure. The unpredictability of massive hemoptysis is underscored by eight deaths from sudden, engulfing hemorrhage in seemingly stable patients awaiting endoscopy or operation.