To determine the frequency of ocular metastases in the general population, we conducted a prospective histopathologic study of 716 eyes obtained from patients who had malignant neoplasms at the time of death. Fifty-two patients had ocular metastases; all of these individuals had widespread metastases that contributed to their deaths. The overall incidence of ocular metastases among all fatal cases of cancer was 9.3%. Thirty-three of the 117 patients with various types of leukemia and four of the 60 patients dying with lymphoma had ocular involvement. The total incidence of ocular metastases in patients dying of all types of carcinoma was 4.0%. In the nine patients dying of sarcoma, no ocular metastases were detected. We estimate that about 22,000 patients who will die of cancer in the United States during 1983 will have ocular metastases.