A 53-year-old male with a long-standing idiopathic pure red cell aplasia, refractory to testosterone cypionate, fluoxymesterone, and corticosteroid, was successfully treated with oxymetholone. Blood count, bone marrow, reticuloendothelial bone marrow scan, and ferrokinetic studies showed a marked increase of erythropoiesis in response to oxymetholone. The patient became hematologically normal within 12 weeks and has required no further transfusions. This observation suggests possible difference of mechanisms in the action of various androgenic drugs. It also suggests that failure of response to one androgenic agent does not necessarily mean the other androgenic agents will not be effective in cases of refractory idiopathic pure red cell aplasia.