An Assessment of Subject Variability, Subject-Shoe Interaction, and the Evaluation of Running Shoes Using Ground Reaction Force Data

J Biomech. 1983;16(3):181-91. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(83)90125-2.


Several aspects of dynamic foot function were investigated using ground reaction forces obtained from five runners performing in five different shoes. A minimum of eight trials were necessary in order to obtain stable subject-condition values. Statistically significant subject-shoe interactions occurred for all parameters. It was therefore concluded that a knowledge of shoe characteristics independent of subject characteristics provided little useful information regarding the effects of the shoes tested on selected foot mechanics of the runners. The various subject-conditions were evaluated in an attempt to determine which was the best shoe. Selected descriptive data are presented and the 'best' shoe concept discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Foot / physiology*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Running*
  • Shoes / standards*
  • Sports Medicine*