Low lead and cadmium levels and childhood visual-perception development

Percept Mot Skills. 1983 Apr;56(2):539-44. doi: 10.2466/pms.1983.56.2.539.


This study investigated possible relationships of lead and cadmium levels to childhood visual-perceptual development. Hair-metal concentrations of lead and cadmium were analyzed in 25 children who were having learning problems. They were also administered the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test. Lead and cadmium levels correlated significantly and negatively with age-deviations of Bender errors. A continuing reexamination of lead and cadmium levels is needed because levels previously thought harmless may be associated with decrements in childhood visual-perceptual development.

MeSH terms

  • Bender-Gestalt Test
  • Cadmium Poisoning / psychology*
  • Child
  • Child Development / drug effects*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lead Poisoning / psychology*
  • Learning Disabilities / chemically induced
  • Learning Disabilities / psychology
  • Male
  • Visual Perception / drug effects*