Effects of vitamin E, a fat soluble antioxidant, on the isoproterenol-induced changes in the lipid peroxide activity as determined by a quantitation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the myocardium were examined. Isoproterenol treatment (80 mg/kg given over two days in two equal doses) caused more than 100 percent increase in the MDA content which was prevented by pretreatment of the animals with vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate, 10 mg/kg) for two weeks. Animals maintained on vitamin E deficient diet for 8 weeks were found to be more sensitive to isoproterenol-induced increase in the MDA content. A small increase in MDA content was also seen due to vitamin E deficiency alone. These changes were found to be reversible upon a 2 week feeding of the animals on the normal diet coupled with vitamin E treatment. Based on these data it is proposed that free radical mediated increase in lipid peroxide activity may have a role in catecholamine-induced heart disease.