Intracranial hypertension, complicating CNS diseases of childhood, reduces effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) with resultant cerebral ischemia. The auditory brain-stem evoked response (ABR) is an important diagnostic tool that enables evaluation of brain-stem function and prognostication during the acute stage of the illness. We studied CPP and ABRs in 25 infants and children with CNS infection and cerebral ischemia. In all survivors, CPP could be maintained above 30 mm Hg, and the ABR remained normal or with partial pathology. In nonsurvivors, CPP could not be maintained above this level, and the ABR waves were completely absent. Long-term outcome was not correlated with the minimal CPP recorded during the disease or with examination of the ABR.